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The 3 M’s of Qatari Cuisine

The 3 M’s of Qatari Cuisine

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Amid the affluence of Qatar’s explosive growth, the streets of Doha are lined with fast-food chains and high-end restaurants that rival those in New York or London. The thumb-shaped peninsula that's about the size of Connecticut has transformed itself from a dusty backwater port to the richest country in the world in 40 years, according to Forbes magazine. The Qataris have invited the world to be a part of that development, resulting in them being a minority in their own country with about 75 percent of the population hailing from somewhere else, according to The Economist.

Despite the dwindling number of Qataris, Qatari cuisine thrives in Doha, and the food reflects the immediate influences at the crossroads of Arabian Gulf Coast, Levantine cooking, and the pan-Arab world. The large influx of guest workers from places like Iran, the Philippines, and Pakistan has brought varying spices and flavors to Qatar's streets. Qatari foods have evolved to complement the shifting population and its arid landscape and peninsular location with fresh fish and heat-beating stews.

Throughout the day, Qatari women can be seen serving authentic Qatari cuisine from steaming pots of all shapes and sizes at the Souq Waqif, a rambling market in Doha. At least one stall in on the main strolling pathway of the souq is open into the night. Look for the sign that reads "Mohamed’s Mom" to sample the three M’s of Qatari cuisine: machbous, mathrooba, and margooga

The hallmark of Qatari cuisine is machbous, a richly spiced mélange of Eastern spices, basmati rice, pine nuts, and raisins topped with a chunk of mutton, chicken, or locally caught hammour fish (a variant of grouper) typically served family-style in a communal platter. If you can’t find a Qatari home to try it in, it is available in unmarked back-alley kitchens and foods stalls in the Souq Waqif. Machbous is similar to kabsa, a Saudi Arabian rice dish that looks like biryani and is topped with fried onions. Each family has its own recipe, but local machbous may feature cardamom, cloves and allspice, rose water-steeped rice, and tomato paste. The marinated meat is traditionally cooked in an underground oven, with heated flat stones or in more modern kitchens, a pressure cooker.

Machbous is sometimes served with mutton and a tomato-based spicy salsa on the side. Photo credit: David Ressel

Mathrooba is another local delicacy readily available in the Souq Waqif or as a special iftar treat to break the Ramadan fast. Mathrooba is similar to another local dish, h’riss, a dish of chicken with creamy, buttery wheat porridge. In contrast, mathrooba is more like a soupy polenta, with the meat simmered and stewed with mashed beans fusing the flavors into a pasty-mix that locals claim helps to stave off the hot temperatures.

The Souq Waqif has many stalls selling steaming pots of mathrooba. Photo credit: David Ressel

Another popular stew-like dish is margooga. Margooga has many of the same Eastern spices found in other Qatari dishes but includes heartier vegetables like eggplant and carrots. A chunky piece of farrago, a sponge-like bread similar to Ethiopian injera, is served with it to soak up the flavors.

H'riss is a popular porridge-type dish in Doha. Photo credit: David Ressel

Even with this globalization, these three M’s of Qatari cuisine: machbous, mathrooba, and margooga, have helped preserve a vibrant local culture in Doha — if you can find it.

The 3 M’s of Qatari Cuisine - Recipes

The photograph above is from an encaustic painting, "Soul", painted by Buzz Baxter. CLICK ON CONSOLE TO ADJUST VOLUME OR TURN OFF MUSIC

"Who will witness?"

"Soul Food" This term originated from the cuisine developed by the African slaves mainly from the American South. A dark and despicable period in the history of the United States resulted in a cuisine fashioned from the meager ingredients available to the slave and sharecropper black families. The meat used was the least desireable cuts and the vegetables, some bordering on weeds, were all that was available for the black slaves to prepare nutritious meals for their families. From these meager ingredients evolved a cuisine that is simple yet hearty and delicious. I wish to thank those who contributed their recipes for this page!

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- CAT CORA'S OVEN FRIED CHICKEN - A "fried" chicken that is not greasy.

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The 3 M’s of Qatari Cuisine - Recipes

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Qatar Facts | Qatar Attractions

The emirate on the Persian gulf has many attractions for the whole family to visit. Among the most popular are:

Popular night market in Qatar Typical Dhow in Qatar
  • Take a stroll in Doha's Corniche Park, see below or visit the National Museum of Qatar which is situated in a very futuristic building. 

National Museum of Qatar - opened in 2019
  • The National Museum of Islamic Art (MIA) which is the largest of its kind in the world has been designed by I.M. Pei, the architect who also designed the Louvre Pyramid.
Qatar Museum of Islamic Art
  • Other interesting places for families are: Msheireb Enrichment Center with exhibits about the history of Qatar in a floating museum and the 'Kingdom of Aladdin' also called Entertainment City, an amusement park for families
  • Go on a desert adventure with camels or join a desert safari. It is also popular to watch a camel race.
Camels 'parking' at the races

Breads Edit

The white bread barazidhaj was made with high-quality wheat flour, similar to raqaq bread but thicker, the fermented dough was leavened usually with yeast and "baker's borax" (buraq) and baked in a tandoor. One poetic verse describing this bread: [2]

"In the farthest end of Karkh of Baghdad, a baker I saw offering bread, splendidly marvelous.
From purest essence of wheat contrived. Radiant and absolute, you may see your image reflected, crystal clear.
Barazij rounds glowing with lovely whiteness, more playful than gorgeous singing girls,
They look like crystal trays, and were they indeed so, they would have served us as plates.

Raqaq bread was made in two varieties, labiq (soft, thin flatbreads) and jarmazaj (dry, thin bread flavored with tamarisk seeds).

Sauces Edit

Numerous recipes for sauces (sibagh) have survived from historic Arabic cookbooks. The 10th-century Kitab al-Tabikh written by Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq gives several recipes to be served with roasted fish, attributed to the various sources.

To Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi are credited two sibagh recipes, one prepared by adding rue, caraway, thyme, asafetida and cassia to the mustard sauce, and another made by mashing vinegar-soaked raisins with garlic, walnut, mustard, vinegar, and seasonings like asafetida and anise.

From the seventh Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun's recipe collection comes a sibagh made with whey, walnut, garlic, olive oil and murri.

There are similar recipes meant for poultry dishes prepared with seasonings like ginger, pomegranate, spikenard, and cloves.

A surviving poem about sibagh is attributed to Caliph Al-Mu'tamid: [3]

The concept of sibagh is so subtle that none other than the smart can fathom.
Walnut and garlic with yogurt whey are the most you may need for it.
Or make it with vinegar, mahrut, and coriander. But with anjudhan it will be even better.
If not, then mustard and garlic mixed with anjudhan and onion, equal parts, will make your relish.
Or with just vinegar and onion eat your fish and it will still be a tasty dish.

Sweets Edit

Described as the "food of kings" and "supreme judge of all sweets", lauzinaj was an almond-based confection that had entered medieval European cuisine by the 13th-century from Andalusian influence, returning Crusaders and Latin translations of cookery books. There are two versions of the dish known from medieval texts: [4]

  1. Lauzinaj mugharraq or "drenched lauzinaj", this dish is believed to be an earlier version of the Ottoman dish baklava. It was made by filling thin pastry dough with a mixture of ground almond (and sometimes other nuts like pistachio or walnut), rose water, and sometimes luxury flavorings like mastic, ambergris, or musk.
  2. Lauzinaj yabis was made with ground almonds cooked in boiling honey or sugar until reaching a taffy-like consistency. The raw version, closer to marzipan in consistency, was made by blending the almonds with sugar and flavoring with camphor, musk, and rose water. The finished confection was molded into animal or other shapes, or cut into squares and triangles.

Vegetables Edit

Vegetables include leeks, endive, melilot, fenugreek, onions, purslane, Jew's mallow and radish. [5] Boiled asparagus is served with olive oil and murri. The cooking water may be sweetened with honey and seasoned with cilantro, rue, anise and black pepper, and used as a beverage either by itself with honey, or added to wine. [6]

Some vegetables are consumed raw, but the following are usually boiled: asparagus, cauliflower, white soy beans, leeks, orach, a variety of mushroom known as ghushina [ clarification needed ] , chard, cabbage, carrot, turnip, fresh fennel and eggplant. [7]

Some vegetable dishes are served cold. One example of such a dish is eggplant with fried onion, fresh herbs and olive oil dressed with fermented sauces, vinegar and caraway. There are several cold eggplant dishes that are similar, some made with smoked eggplant, adding nuts like ground walnuts or almonds, and sometimes different seasonings like saffron, cassia, and galangal.

A dish for fried carrots with fresh herbs, dressing and spices was described by the poet Kushajim: [8] [9]

Dinars of carnelian and gold in a vessel so delicate, it may almost melt and flow.
All radiating with luster like carnelian shimmering on pearls.
In the vessel harmoniously combined, here together and there disperse.
The spices emitting fragrance like wine mingled with sweet breeze.
On top are pearls and silver decked with gems,
Which the cook delicately fashioned, a gorgeous dish with flavor and perfume.
The scattered rue is flowers of turquoise gems, vibrantly green,
Jiggling with murri and olive oil, ebbing and flowing with sheen.

Arab cuisine uses specific and unique foods and spices. Some of those foods are:

    —lamb and chicken are the most used, followed by beef and goat. Other poultry is used in some regions, and fish is used in coastal areas including the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea.

    —widely used, especially yogurt, buttermilk and white cheese. Butter and cream are also used extensively. and spices—amounts and types used generally varies from region to region.
    —hot beverages are served more often than cold, coffee being at the top of the list in Middle-Eastern countries and tea at top in Maghreb countries.
    —lentils are widely used in all colours, as well as fava beans, peanuts, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), scarlet runner beans, green peas, lupini beans, white beans, and brown beans. —popular vegetables in Arab cuisine include carrots, eggplant (aubergine), zucchini (courgette), artichokes, okra, onions, and olives. Potatoes are also eaten as vegetables in Arab culture. —pomegranate, dates, figs, oranges, citruses, watermelons, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, grapes, peaches, and nectarines are favored in Arab cuisine. —almonds, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts are often included in dishes or eaten as snacks. —parsley, coriander and mint are popular as seasonings in many dishes, while spinach and mulukhiyah (leaves from the plant of the Corchorus genus) are used in cooked dishes.
  • Dressings and sauces—the most popular dressings include various combinations of olive oil, lemon juice, parsley, or garlic, as well as tahini (sesame paste). Labaneh (strained yogurt) is often seasoned with mint, onion, or garlic, and served as a sauce with various dishes.

Essential to any cooking in the Arab world is the concept of hospitality and generosity. Meals are generally large family affairs, with much sharing and a great deal of warmth over the dinner table. Formal dinners and celebrations generally involve large quantities of lamb, and every occasion entails large quantities of Arabic coffee or Arabic tea.

Khaleej Edit

Coffee ceremony Edit

In the Khaleej al-Arab region, a visitor is greeted by a great table of dried fruits, fresh fruits, nuts and cakes with syrup. Dried fruits include figs, dates, apricots and plums. Fresh fruits include citruses, melons and pomegranate. Arabic coffee is most favored, but Arabic tea is also a great refresher. Spices are often added to the coffee and other drinks.

Dinner guests Edit

In the Khaleej al-Arab region, a guest should expect a dinner consisting of a very large platter, shared commonly, with a large amount of spiced rice, with spicy lamb, chicken, or both, as separate dishes, with various stewed vegetables, heavily spiced, sometimes with a tomato-based sauce.

Different types of bread are served with toppings specific to the region. Tea would certainly accompany the meal, as it is almost constantly consumed. Coffee would also be served.

Maghreb Edit

Tea/coffee ceremony Edit

In the Maghreb region, a visitor will find a table full of bread-like snacks, including m’semen, baghrir, and other stuffed breads. These are served with honey, rosewater or olive oil.

There are also many different cookies and cakes included accompanied by plates with different kinds of nuts. Mint tea is often served with it in a traditional Maghrebian teapot.

Dinner guests Edit

In the Maghreb region, a guest may find a table with different kinds of stews, called marqas or tajines. Dishes such as couscous and other semolina-based foods are also to be found.

These main dishes are accompanied by smaller mezze-like plates with salads, sauces and dips. Breads such as m'semen and khobz are used to eat the stews.

Levantine Edit

Coffee/tea ceremony Edit

In an average Arab Levantine household, a visitor might expect a table full of mezzes, breads topped with spices including za'atar and nuts. In the Levant, Arabic coffee is a much-loved beverage, but Arabic tea is also much enjoyed in Jordan and Palestine.

Dinner guests Edit

In the Levant, a guest will find a table with different kinds of mezzes, nuts, dips and oils. Mezzes include hummus, baba ghanoush, falafel, kibbeh, kafta, smoked vegetables and tabouli salads. The nuts can differ from almonds to walnuts, with different spice coatings. The dips and oils include hummus and olive oil.

Regional differences Edit

There are many regional differences in the Arab cuisine. For instance, mujadara in Syria and Lebanon is different from mujadara in Jordan and Palestine. Some dishes, such as mansaf (the national dish of Jordan), are native to certain countries and rarely, if ever, make an appearance in other countries.

Unlike most Western recipes, cinnamon is used in meat dishes, as well as in sweets such as baklava. Dishes such as tajine and couscous can differ from Morocco to Libya, each having their own unique preparation. Other dishes, such as the Andalucian-Moorish bastilla and albondigas have different traditional spice mixes and fillings.

Many Arabic food words are borrowed from Aramaic, the language spoken by the Christian Nabataean inhabitants of Iraq and Syria. [11]

There are two basic structures for meals in the Arab World, one regular schedule during most of the year and a second one that is unique to the month of Ramadan in which observant Muslims fast during the day.

Year round Edit

Breakfast Edit

Cafés often serve croissants for breakfast. Breakfast is often a quick meal, consisting of bread and dairy products, with tea and sometimes jam. The most common breakfast items are labneh and cream (kishta, made of cow's milk).

Lunch Edit

Lunch is considered the main meal of the day, and is traditionally eaten between 1:30 pm and 2:30 pm. It is the meal for which the family comes together. Rarely do meals have different courses however, salads and mezze are served as side dishes to the main meal.

The platter usually consists of a portion of meat, poultry or fish, a portion of rice, lentils, bread and a portion of cooked vegetables, in addition to the fresh ones with the mezze and salad.

The vegetables and meat are usually cooked together in a sauce (often tomato, although others are also popular) to make maraqa, which is served with rice. Most households add bread.

Drinks are not necessarily served with the food however, there is a very wide variety of drinks such as shineena (or laban), karakaden, Naqe'e Al Zabib, Irq Soos, Tamr Hindi, and fruit juice, as well as other traditional Arabic drinks.

During the 20th century, carbonated soda and fruit-based drinks have also become very popular.

Dinner Edit

Dinner is traditionally the lightest meal, although in modern times, dinner has become more important with regards to entertaining guests due to the hours of the workday.

Ramadan Edit

Iftar Edit

Iftar (also called Futuur), or fast-breaking, is the meal taken at dusk when the fast is over. The meal consists of three courses: first, diners eat a date due to Islamic tradition.

This is followed by a soup or anything they would like, the most popular being lentil soup, but a wide variety of soups such as chicken, oats, freeka (a soup made from whole wheat and chicken broth), potato, maash, and others are also offered.

The third course is the main dish, usually eaten after an interval, when Maghreb prayer is conducted. The main dish is mostly similar to what is served in lunch year-round, except that cold drinks are served.

Suhur Edit

Suhur is the meal eaten just before dawn, when fasting must begin. It is eaten to help the person make it through the day with enough energy until dusk.

Sweets Edit

In addition to the two meals eaten during Ramadan (one for dinner and one for Suhur before dawn), sweets are consumed much more than usual during the month of Ramadan sweets and fresh fruits are served between these two meals. Although most sweets are made all year round such as kanafeh, baklava, and basbousa, some are made especially for Ramadan, such as qatayef. [12]

Arabian Peninsula Edit

Eastern Arabian cuisine today is the result of a combination of diverse influences, incorporating Levantine and Yemeni cuisines. [13]

Bukhari rice (رز بخاري) (Ruz al Bukhari) is a very popular dish eaten in the Hejaz district of Saudi Arabia. It is made with spicy tomato sauce, flavoured chicken and a fresh salad.

Kabsa (كبسة‎) or makbūs (مكبوس‎) is a traditional mixed rice dish in many Arab states of the Persian Gulf, originating from Saudi Arabia. It is made of rice (typically basmati), meat, vegetables, and a mixture of spices. Spices used in kabsa are generally black pepper, cloves, cardamom, saffron, cinnamon, dried lime (also known as black lime), bay leaves and nutmeg. [14] The meats used are usually chicken, goat, lamb, camel, beef, fish or shrimp. Kabsa is popular in countries around the Persian Gulf and the Khuzestan Province of Iran. [ citation needed ]

The cuisine of Yemen is in some ways distinct from other Arab cuisines. As in most Arab countries, chicken, goat, and lamb are eaten more often than beef, and fish is eaten mostly in coastal areas.

However, cheese, butter, and other dairy products are less common, especially in the cities and other urban areas. As with other Arab cuisines, the most widespread beverages are tea and coffee tea is usually flavored with cardamom, clove, or mint, and coffee with cardamom. Karakaden, Naqe'e Al Zabib, and diba'a are the most widespread cold beverages.

Although each region has their own variation, saltah (سلتة) is considered the national dish of Yemen. The base is a brown meat is called maraq (مرق), a dollop of fenugreek froth, and sahawiq (سحاوق) or sahowqa (a mixture of chili peppers, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs ground into a salsa.

Rice, potatoes, scrambled eggs, and vegetables are common additions to saltah. It is eaten with flat bread known as mulawah, which serves as a utensil to scoop up the food.

Mashriq Edit

Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Fertile Crescent. Although now divided into Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Palestine, the region has historically been more united, and shares many culinary traditions. Although very similar, there is some variation within the Levantine area.

Dishes include olive oil, za'atar, and garlic, and common dishes include a wide array of mezze or bread dips, stuffings, and side dishes such as hummus, falafel, ful, tabouleh, labaneh, and baba ghanoush.

It also includes copious amounts of garlic and olive oil, often seasoned with lemon juice—almost no meal goes by without including these ingredients. Most often foods are either grilled, baked, fried, or sautéed in olive oil butter and cream are rarely used, other than in a few desserts.

Vegetables are often eaten raw or pickled, as well as cooked. While the cuisine does not boast a multitude of sauces, it focuses on herbs, spices, and the freshness of ingredients.

Bedouin kitchen Edit

The Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula, Middle East and North Africa rely on a diet of dates, dried fruit, nuts, wheat, barley, rice, and meat. The meat comes from large animals such as cows, sheep, and lambs. They also eat dairy products: milk, cheese, yoghurt, and buttermilk (labneh).

Bedouins also use many different dried beans including white beans, lentils, and chickpeas. Vegetables that are commonly used are those that could be dried, such as pumpkins, but also vegetables that are more heat-resistant, such as aubergines.

They drink a lot of fresh verbena tea, Arabic tea, Maghrebi mint tea, or Arabic coffee. A daily break to freshen up with drinks is a much-loved tradition.

Common breads in the Maghreb are khobz and khaleej. Traditional dishes such as marqa and tajines (stews) are also regularly prepared.

Breakfast consists of baked beans, bread, nuts, dried fruits, milk, yoghurt, and cheese with tea or coffee. Snacks also include nuts and dried fruits.

Levant Edit

In Palestine and Jordan, the population has a cooking style of their own, involved in roasting various meats, baking flatbreads, and cooking thick yogurt-like pastes from goat's milk.

Musakhan is a common main dish, famous in northern Jordan, the city of Jerusalem, and northern West Bank. The main component is taboon bread, which is topped with pieces of cooked sweet onions, sumac, saffron, and allspice. For large dinners, it can be topped by one or two roasted chickens on a single large taboon bread.

The primary cheese of the Palestinian mezze is Ackawi cheese, which is a semi-hard cheese with a mild, salty taste and sparsely filled with roasted sesame seeds. It is primarily used in kenafah.

Maqluba is another popular meal in Jordan and central Palestine. Mujaddara, another food of the West Bank, as well as in the Levant in general, consists of cooked green lentils, with bulghur sauteed in olive oil.

Mansaf is a traditional meal, and the national dish of Jordan, having roots in the Bedouin population of the country. It is mostly cooked on special occasions such as Ramadan, Eid ul-Fitr, a birth, or a large dinner gathering.

Mansaf is a leg of lamb or large pieces of mutton, on top of a markook bread that has been topped with yellow rice. A type of thick dried yogurt made from goat's milk, called jameed, is poured on top of the lamb and rice to give it its distinct flavor and taste. The dish is garnished with cooked pine nuts and almonds.

Levantine cuisine is also famous for its wide range of cheeses, including shanklish, halloumi, and arisheh.

Kishk is a famous Syrian soup, alongside many soups made of lentils. Lebanese food also has a wide range of dips including hummus, baba ganoush, and labneh, and offers many raw-meat dishes.

Syrian food can be either extremely vegetarian or a meat lover's paradise. Lemon, oregano, za'atar, paprika, and various other Mediterranean spices and herbs are used in Syrian cuisine.

Levantine cuisine also incorporates wines made in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine and the Levantine equivalent of the Greek ouzo, known as arak.

Iraq/Mesopotamia Edit

Iraq is where the first cookbook was ever recorded in history, historically in Baghdad and Mesopotamia. Iraq is one of the oil-rich Arab countries surrounding the gulf and is also part of the Mashriq sharing similarities in cooking and cuisines between both the surrounding regions of the Arab world. Iraqi cuisine mainly consists of meat, rather than appetizers. In Iraqi cuisine, the most common meats are chicken and lamb. The national dish of Iraq is the Masgouf fish, usually enjoyed with grilled tomatoes and onions. Iraqi cuisine uses more spices than most Arab cuisines. Iraq's main food crops include wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, and dates. Vegetables include eggplant, okra, potatoes, and tomatoes. Pulses such as chickpeas and lentils are also quite common. Common meats in Iraqi cuisine are lamb and beef fish and poultry are also used.

Soups and stews are often prepared and served with rice and vegetables. Biryani, although influenced by Indian cuisine, is milder with a different mixture of spices, and a wider variety of vegetables, including potatoes, peas, carrots, and onions. Dolma is also one of the most popular dishes.

The Iraqi cuisine is famous for its extremely tender kebab, as well as its tikka. A wide variety of spices, pickles, and amba are also extensively used.

Egypt Edit

Egypt has a very rich cuisine with many unique customs. These customs also vary within Egypt itself, for example, in the coastal areas, like the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and Canal, the diet relies heavily on fish. In the more rural areas, reliance on farm products is much heavier. Duck, geese, chicken, and river fish are the main animal protein sources. While Egyptians eat a lot of meat, Egyptian cuisine is rich in vegetarian dishes three national dishes of Egypt ful medames, ta'miya (also known in other countries as falafel), and kushari, are generally vegetarian. Fruits are also greatly appreciated in Egypt: mangos, grapes, bananas, apples, sycamore, guavas, and peaches are very popular, especially because they are all domestically produced and are available at relatively low prices. A famous dessert from Egypt is called Om Ali, which is similar to a bread and butter pudding made traditionally with puff pastry, milk and nuts. It is served all across the Middle East and is also made on special occasions such as Eid. [19] Bread is a staple in Egypt, the most common breads are Eish Baladi.

Africa Edit

Sudan Edit

In comparison to its Maghreb and Levantine neighbors, the cuisine of Sudan tends to be generous with spices. The Sudanese cuisine has a rich variety in ingredients and creativity. Simple everyday vegetables are used to create stews and omelettes that are healthy yet nutritious, and full of energy and flair. These stews are called mullah. One could have a zucchini mullah, spinach "Riglah" mullah, etc. Sudanese food inspired the origins of Egyptian cuisine and Ethiopian cuisine, both of which are very popular in the Western world. Popular dishes include Ful medames, Shahan ful, Hummus, Bamya (a stew made from ground, sun dried okra), and Gurasa (pancake), as well as different types of salads and sweets.

Maghreb Edit

Maghreb cuisine is the cooking of the Maghreb region, the northwesternmost part of Arab world along the Mediterranean Sea, consisting of the countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Maghrebi cuisine, the most common staple foods are wheat (for khobz bread [21] and couscous [22] ), [23] fish, seafood, goat, [24] lamb, [24] beef, [24] dates, almonds, olives and various vegetables and fruits. [25]

Moroccan cuisine has long been considered one of the most diverse in the world. This is because Morocco has interacted extensively with the outside world for centuries. Over the centuries, chefs in Moroccan cuisine in Fes, Meknes, Marrakech, Rabat and Tetouan have been the basis for what is known as Moroccan cuisine today. Moroccan cuisine also ranked first in the Arab world and Africa, and second in the world in 2012 after France.

Tunisian cuisine is the style of cooking used by the Tunisian people and is part of the Maghreb and Mediterranean cuisine. Assa on mush, spices, olive oil, chili red pepper, kodaid, wheat flour, lamb, garlic, fish and many other vegetables and spices. Tunisian cuisine offers what is known as a "solar kitchen" that relies heavily on olive oil, spices, tomatoes, fish species, and meat. Bread is an essential ingredient in Tunisian cuisine, as it accompanies almost all dishes and is usually used by dipping for broth.

Libyan cuisine derives much from the traditions of Maghreb and Mediterranean cuisines. One of the most popular Libyan dishes is Bazin, an unleavened bread prepared with barley, water and salt. [26] Bazin is prepared by boiling barley flour in water and then beating it to create a dough using a magraf, which is a unique stick designed for this purpose. [27] Pork consumption is forbidden, in accordance with Sharia, the religious laws of Islam. [28] Tripoli is Libya's capital, and the cuisine is particularly influenced by Italian cuisine. [28] Pasta is common, and many seafood dishes are available. [28] Southern Libyan cuisine is more traditionally Arab and Berber. Common fruits and vegetables include figs, dates, oranges, apricots and olives. [28]

Libyan cooking, like Tunisian, includes hot spices. Bazin – Libyan bread, Bsisa, Couscous, Harissa, Hassaa, Lebrak – Filled grapeleaves with rice and minced meat, Libyan Boureek, Libyan summer salad, Marqa or Tajine, Madrouba, Mbatten, Mbekbka – a unique Libyan soup with pasta or spaghetti. Instead of the European way of boiling pasta or spaghetti in water and then throwing the water away (with all the goodness it contains), the Libyans boil pasta with the sauce, which adds a real pasta flavour to the sauce. You can make it with any type of pasta, and the simplest dish involves frying onions in oil, throwing in the tomato puree, chili powder, turmeric, then adding water and salt and leave to boil, before adding the pasta. But the proper way to do it is to add some lamb chops, chickpeas and garlic to the sauce. Serve hot with a sprinkle of extra virgin olive oil, lemon, fresh chili and crusty bread (optional). One can also add other vegetables such as pumpkin, potato and green pepper, Maglouba, Shakshouka, Sherba, Usban, Zumita and Asida. Desserts and beverages includes, Makroudh, Libyan tea, Ghoriba, Maakroun, Mafruka and Mhalbiya.

Algerian cuisine is characterized by a wealth derived from land and sea production, a Mediterranean-Maghreb cuisine. It offers a variety of dishes depending on the region and season, which gives a very varied kitchen plate. This kitchen, which uses many products, is still based on vegetables and cereals that have always been produced in abundance in the country, which was formerly called «Roma Bakery» and then «Bakery Europe». In addition, Algeria's rich history has contributed to the abundance of food from different periods and regions of the world. Among all the culinary specialties available in Algeria, the couscous remains the most famous, recognized as a national dish, as well as the traditional pastry called "Oriental Pastry" in Western countries. Despite its historical transmission, from generation to generation, there are many, many books devoted to Algerian cuisine. Algerian cuisine combines a variety of ingredients including vegetables, fruits, spices, meat, fish, seafood, vegetables and dried fruits. Vegetables are often used for salads, soups, casserole, couscous and sauces. It is widely used in carrots, pumpkins, potatoes, green beans, beans, kale, eggplant, and truffles.

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12 Keto Ice Cream Recipes So Good You Won't Even Miss The Cone

Sure, the keto diet seems like a breeze when you need to fill up on savory fatty foods (hello, bacon and cheese). But what about when it comes time for dessert? On a high-fat, low-carb diet like keto, tons of standard dessert fare (cookies, cakes, even ice cream) is off limits. right?

Well, yes (sadly)&mdashbut there are some keto ice cream hacks so you can still enjoy a frozen dessert once in a while.

The rules for what is and isn't allowed in terms of ice cream on the keto diet are similar to the rules of dairy on the keto diet: Avoid sugars at all costs. And tbh, that means you likely won't be able to stop by your local ice cream parlor for a cone while you're in ketosis. Your solution? DIY ice cream.

Heavy cream and low-carb sweeteners like erythritol are going to be your best friends in your ice cream making endeavor&mdashalong with lots of keto-friendly fruits or flavors that feature nuts or calorie- and carb-free additions like cinnamon and lemon.

While it sounds hard to master making ice cream on your own, it's definitely doable (Jenna Jameson, the queen of keto herself, even does it). To get you started, here are 12 of the best keto ice cream recipes out there.